- Inquiries related to instruments, people and events
- Reproduction of photographs on the history of Carl Zeiss
- Copies of advertising material, user manuals and other documents
- Loan of old instruments to museums and exhibitions
- Independent research for research and publication project in the Archives
The ZEISS Archives were originally created for inventory. He was allocated the documents from before 1945, those of the VEB and some of those belonging to the combine. This unit (BACZ) therefore houses the documents up to the mid-1960s.
Only in 1998 was a decision made to merge the individual combine operations as individual holdings. As the documents of the BACZ are already used and cited in scientific literature under this signature, and there is no compelling reason to realign them, it was decided that the documents of the VEB would stay as is and perform major division only at catalogue level.
VEB Carl Zeiss Jena
Against the embittered resistance of the workforce, Carl Zeiss Jena was nationalized on 1 July 1948. At the same time, VVB Optik was established with a view to coordinating the work of the VEBs in the field of optics. In the first few years, the foreman of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena was also top executive of this VVB. ZEISS was soon adapted to the needs of the state-controlled economy. This organizational structure did not see any major changes over the next few years. Only the Employment Directorate was set up in 1953.
Major changes were commonplace at Research and Development. This affected the intermediate levels more than it did the individual Research and Development departments.
However, the documents on this level can be allocated to the individual laboratories. For this reason, precise reconstruction of these organizational changes is not important for document indexing.
VEB Carl Zeiss Jena Combine
On 1 January 1965, VEB Carl Zeiss Jena was turned into a combine. At the same time, it was allocated to VEB Rathenower Optische Werke (ROW).
Organizational change was rather a slow process. While the former management team did become independent enterprises (telescope management (FBL) became the F enterprise), officially they remained production facilities. The core areas (Research, Development, Technology, Sales) remained dominant. It took a while for them to become fully integrated enterprises.
As these enterprises hardly left any trail behind them, and in order to make the structures less complex, the few documents (45 units, primarily from the G, F and P enterprises) were allocated to the former management and a new stock was only formed with the establishment of a new, fully integrated enterprise. The same process was applied to the documents from Research and Development (see also the Research Operations section). They were allocated to the former laboratories until the establishment of the Research Center in 1971.
Plant for optical precision instrument construction (G-plant)
Since the mid 1960s, substantial investments were approved for ZEISS. The aim of the investments was to increase the production of scientific precision instruments for the needs of the former East Germany and for exports.
One of the greatest construction projects was that of building 6/70. It became the center of the South Production System (aka Factory II), which saw a large part of the South Factory consolidated into a technological system. The three parent companies G, F and P relocated to building 6/70 once the investments were complete and were consolidated in "Factory 2". Effective 7 December 1971, the project management team in charge of building 6/70 since 20 March 1971, also known as the "building team", was dissolved. As of 6 December 1971, the plant management of Factory 2, which was renamed G enterprise, assumed its duties. Also effective 6 December 1971, the F, G and P enterprises were allocated to plant management for Factory II. The responsibilities of the specialist management teams was consistent across all the enterprises of the combine. It was conducted horizontally, by responsibilities.
After conclusion of the reforms, the organizational strcuture of Factory 2, or the G enterprise, remained intact until the dissolution of the G enterpise. The Security department was renamed GX in 1977 and the inspection office assigned to it, which had previously been directly below the plant manager. An order management team (GA) was formed and assumed the construction management tasks of the GT department.
Research Center (W-plant)
After the combine was formed in 1965, an initial attempt was made to expand the enterprises into full-fledged companies. For this reason, Research and Development were allocated to the individual enterprises. A central directorate for Research and Development was retained, which was primarily in charge of initial and basic research.
The internal organizational structure of the laboratories and development offices had hardly any impact on the new setup. The laboratories retained their names and roles, even if the structural acronyms changed. The laboratories remained in the research block constructed in 1959. This means that only minor adjustments were made to the informal processes as well. This continuity is evident in the documents: they were simply continued. Their allocation to the enterprises only lasted a short while. After a detailed analysis of these documents, it came to light that the document structure did not permit any sort of major change. What's more, this would result in increased complexity. For this reason, the documentation remained allocated to the origin classification of the VEB's old research institutes. This led to a skewed structure: while the VEB's other documents only go back as far as 1964, the documents for research and development up to 1970 have been allocated to the VEB. This did not change until the Research Center was established on 1 January 1971. Here, not only were Research and Development merged, but also Technology Development for the "Technology" Management team.
After a number of experiments at the organization, in 1976 a structure was created that essentially remained intact throughout the life of the Research Center. Meanwhile, the experiments concerned the laboratories and development offices than they did the levels between them and the Research Management team. The laboratories were thus split into two groups for a time: WL and WS.
In 1968, a dedicated Research Center was established for the automation of the AUTEVO technical preparation. The Research Control Center LZ AUTEVO was funded by the state budget and tasked with driving research in computer-assisted production preparation in international collaboration and with the other branches of industry. Funding resources were provided, which were utilized in mechanical engineering, systems construction, and the electronics and building industries. In 1979, the Research Center, which had by now been reduced to the AUTEVO coordination point, was closed. The topics and some of the staff initially moved to the X department, then to WEH, and later on to WEK.
In the last few years, over 150,000 photographs have been catalogued. Of these, more than 120,000 have already been scanned. The oldest pictures date back to the 1860s. The images show people, buildings, instruments, and events. Due to the enormous amount of data and for data privacy reasons, it is not possible to upload the photos themselves to the internet.
We will be happy to provide you with printable versions of our photos to be used for editorial or scientific purposes.
- "ZEISS Archives" must be named as the source.
- The images may only be used for the intended purpose. After use, the image files and any copies must be destroyed.
- Any use for a different purpose must be approved in advance. Any unauthorized transfer to third parties is prohibited.
- A specimen copy of the pictures will be sent to the ZEISS Archives before they are published in any way.
Using preview images, you can select which pictures you would like to order from his tory @zeiss .com. Please tell us what you intend to use the images for and provide us with the signature above each image.
Over 100,000 different product literature publications are catalogued in the product literature database. Almost without exception, they consist of product literature from Carl Zeiss and its subsidiaries. Among them are catalogs, brochures, and instruction manuals, as well as price lists and circulars for retailers. You can also find reprints of scientific articles discussing Carl Zeiss instruments.
The collection of product literature up until 1945 is almost complete; only some of the brochures for military instruments are missing. For the period after 1945, the publications of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena and that of the combine have been collected.
The gaps include: military instruments as well as instruments which were ultimately not produced in Jena, especially glasses (Rathenow), binoculars (Eisfeld) and camera lenses (Saalfeld).
ZEISS in Oberkochen has thus far collected the product literature for the Microscopy business group and the former Geodetic Instrument business group, which has since been taken over by the company Trimble Jena GmbH.
For cost reasons, these documents can be searched but not downloaded. However, you can order copies. We charge €0.50 per page (plus a €5 fee) with a minimum order value of €15.
In conjunction with Prof. Walter, who holds the Chair for Economic History at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, and with sponsorship from the VW Foundation, three important collections from the VEB Carl Zeiss Jena combine were made accessible between 1998 and 2002.
The goal was to test new indexing forms for the internet.
In the next few years, the plan is to make other inventories from the combine as well as older inventories available one by one for research and release them for use on the internet. Online research can be done to prepare for, but not replace, a visit to the archives, since the file contents themselves cannot be uploaded to the internet. To order files from the archives, you need the digital signature of each file.
For data privacy reasons, access to the index of persons is limited.
We are currently working on a way to help locate the older Carl Zeiss files from before 1945.
In our Virtual Museum, you can find every instrument manufactured by Carl Zeiss up to 1945. The devices have the original texts from the old brochures.
Exact manufacturing dates are often difficult to ascertain, which is why we have decided not to offer specific information.
The following ranges have been added (1945–1990):
Magnetic Tape Storage
Projection and Movie Theater
High Vacuum Technology
Instrument Collection and Museum
A collection of roughly 1,500 Carl Zeiss instruments is on display in Jena. The items are lent out for company presentations to museums and to exhibition organizers.
This collection builds on the collection from the former plant for optical precision instruments (G-Plant) at Carl Zeiss (German Democratic Republic). It has grown in the past few years.
The aim is to collect these instruments, which document the product history and scientific development of Carl Zeiss in Jena.
This is what distinguishes our collection from that of the optical museum in Jena and Oberkochen:
The Optical Museum in Jena is based on a collection from the Carl Zeiss Research departments in Jena. Today the two organizations are no longer directly linked. The Optical Museum documents the history of optics. The focus is largely, but not exclusively, on Carl Zeiss.
The ZEISS Museum of Optics in Oberkochen collects instruments from the ZEISS Group up through German reunification, as well as the latest products.
Chronicle of Optics
In the early 1950s, archivist Fritz Ortlepp put together a chronicle of optics. It consists of some 30,000 index cards and ranges from the pre-Socratic philosophers to about 1945. This card catalogue is currently being processed so that it can be made available as an online database.
The next step planned is to complete the data from World War II on.
The biographies of the 100 most important Carl Zeiss employees up to 1945, including photos, are currently being compiled. They are being added to the Virtual Museum along with a photo. There will be links to the instruments that each person invented.
The patent database for the period before 1945 will also be included in the museum. The patents are to be linked to the inventors and products.
The products of VEB Carl Zeiss Jena and the Carl Zeiss Group following 1945 are to be catalogued. However, due to the diversity of companies and business units, this will take some time to complete. Parts of the Virtual Museum will be translated into English.
Due to the volume of data involved, however, this will take some time.
If you are interested in taking part in one of the projects on a voluntary basis, please send an email to: wolfgang .wimmer @zeiss .com
Like on the internet, "full-text searches" are possible. However, it often turns up very imprecise results. For this reason, there are three further ways of searching that are typical for archives:
Keyword, device and place indexes enable precise searches for particular information. In general, the individual keyword is followed by a derivative and a comma in order to keep the number of hits at a reasonable level
It is therefore advisable to take any terms used in index lists (keywords, devices, etc.) into account.
The full-text search for "Annual Report" generates more than 270 hits.
In the keywords index you will find:
Annual Report, 1933/34
Annual Report, 1935
For data privacy reasons, the person index cannot be released for the internet.
Since the mid-1970s, the document plan of the Ministry for Electronics and Electrical Engineering has been used.
This file plan has its disadvantages. The content was arranged by topic and formal aspects (e.g. protocols). The origin is not important.
For instance, as per the document plan, "Workloads of the Different Management Levels" had to be filed under number 0.2.3. The content was formally catalogued on the level below that (Specifications, Designs, Protocols, Templates). There was no way to distinguish between the "different management levels" such as combine and enterprise management. They can therefore not be distinguished here.
That's why this document plan is not suitable for all archive searches. However, as the documents were pre-classified in this way, this system remained in use.
A completely new classification was created based on origin. An attempt was made to use the document origins as a guide to the greatest possible extent. In other words, the documents are allocated to the organizational units in which they were created and/or the department that was responsible for a particular question.
Consistent division was not always meaningful, which is why, for example, the plant management documents, which could in theory be responsible for all questions and problems, are allocated to the respective directorates and departments.
There are 4 hierarchy levels: at the top is the inventory, and below it are the main departments and directorates, followed by the other departments. Large document volumes are allocated by tasks and responsibilities on the lowest level.
Rolf Walter and Wolfgang Mühlfriedel (publisher) ”Carl Zeiss. The History of a Company.”
Vol. 1: Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel ”Zeiss 1846–1905. From mechanical workshop to optical instrument construction.”
Vol. 2: Rolf Walter ”Zeiss 1905–1945.”
Vol. 3: Wolfgang Mühlfriedel, Edith Hellmuth ”Carl Zeiss in Jena 1945–1990.”
Edith Hellmuth, Wolfgang Mühlfriedel ”Carl Zeiss”
(Political Education Authority, Thuringia. Blätter zur Landeskunde, 1996).
NN ”Carl Zeiss – from Jena to Oberkochen.”
Issue 8 in the series ”Die deutsche Frage im Unterricht”, Regional Center for Political Education in Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart 1986.
Group of authors: ”Carl Zeiss Jena – Then and Now.”
Rütten & Lohnig, Berlin 1962.
Friedrich Schomerus ”Geschichte des Jenaer Zeisswerkes 1846–1946.”
Piscator publishers, Stuttgart, 1952.
Moritz von Rohr ”Zur Geschichte der Zeissischen Werkstätte bis zum Tode Ernst Abbes.”
Jena 1936 (Reprint from ”Forschungen zur Geschichte der Optik.” Vol. 2, (booklet to accompany the Journal of Physical Instruments) Julius Springer publisher, Berlin 1930, 1936).
Felix Auerbach ”Das Zeisswerk und die Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung in Jena. Ihre wissenschaftliche, technische und soziale Entwicklung und Bedeutung.”
Jena 1903, 1904, 1914, 1925.
Betram Kurze ”Industriearchitektur eines Weltunternehmens Carl Zeiss 1880–1945” (Thuringian Office for the Preservation of Historical Monuments and Archeology. New edition 24) Erfurt, 2006.
Franz-Ferdinand Falkenhausen, Ute Leonhardt, Otto Haueis and Wolfgang Wimmer ”Carl Zeiss in Jena 1846 bis 1946.” Photo book, Jena, 2004.
Katharina Schreiner (publisher): ”Schaltkreise. Die Anfänge der Mikroelektronik im VEB Carl Zeiss Jena und ihre Folgen.”
Katharina Schreiner (publisher): ”Politkrimi oder Zukunfstmodell? The ”New Economic System” at VEB Carl Zeiss Jena.”
History of German Reunification
Stephan Paetrow "What belongs together... 20 Years of Reunification at Carl Zeiss."
Hanseatischer Merkur, Hamburg, 2011.
City Museum of Jena / Geschichtswerkstatt Jena / State Commissioners of the Free State of Thuringia for the Records of the State Security Service of the former German Democratic Republic (publisher): The Peaceful Revolution in Jena. Faces of the Fall 1989. An Exhibition Documentary. Kranichfeld 2010. Contains the DVD: Contemporary Witness Documentation "Faces of the Peaceful Revolution – Jena, 1989–2009 (Interviews of Contemporary Witnesses).
Hans-Werner Kreidner: Changing Times – Jena. Erfurt 2009. 128 pages, 228 photographs.
Jürgen Hohmuth. Time Images. Jena 1988/1989. Berlin 2009.
Katharina Schreiner, Klaus-Dieter Gattnar, Horst Skoludek: Carl Zeiss East and West. Story of a Reunification. Jena 2006. 356 pages.
Armin Hermann ”Brothers despite everything. The East/West story of ZEISS.” Piper, Munich, 2002. 568 pages.
Beate Naffin: Carl Zeiss “Zeiss in Distress.” Corporation and Crisis – Conflict and Criticism” Published by IG Metall Aalen. Vol. 4 of the series “People Fighting for Their Jobs.“ Aalen 2002. 144 pages.
Armin Hermann: Jena and Jenoptik. From Combine to Global Player. Düsseldorf and Munich 1998. 285 pages.
Klaus Mütze ”The Power of Optics: Industrial History of Jena, 1846–1996.”
Vol. 1: Vom Atelier für Mechanik zum Rüstungskonzern 1846–1946” Jena 2004.
Vol. 2: 1946–1996: Vom Rüstungskonzern zum Industriekombinat. Vermächtnis, Erkenntnis, Experiment und Fortschritt. Jena 2009.
Armin Hermann ”Carl Zeiss – Die abenteuerliche Geschichte einer deutschen Firma.”
Series Piper No. 1265, Piper publishers, Munich 1992.
Armin Hermann ”Nur der Name war geblieben – Die abenteuerliche Geschichte der Firma Carl Zeiss”
Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1989.
Wolfgang Held ”Die gläserne Fackel.”
Heinz Sponsel ”Made in Germany. Die dramatische Geschichte des Hauses Zeiss.”
Fritz Scheffel ”Gläserne Wunder. Drei Männer schaffen ein Werk. Zeiss Abbe Schott.”
Company Founders Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe
Stephan Paetrow and Wolfgang Wimmer "Carl Zeiss 1816–1881. A Biography."
Böhlau, Cologne 2016.
Rüdiger Stolz und Joachim Wittig (Hrsg.) ”Carl Zeiss und Ernst Abbe. Leben, Wirken und Bedeutung.”
Horst Alexander Willam ”Carl Zeiss 1816–1888.”
Verlag F. Bruckmann K.G., München 1967.
Paul G. Esche ”Carl Zeiss. Life and Work.”
Erich Zeiss und Friedrich Zeiss ”Hof- und Universitätsmechanikus Dr. h.c. Carl Zeiss.”
Sippenverband der Familien Zeiß; 1966.
Harald Volkmann ”Carl Zeiss und Ernst Abbe, ihr Leben und ihr Werk.”
Deutsches Museum – Abhandlungen und Berichte,
Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, München, VDI-Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf, 1966, Heft 2
Ernst Abbe: Werke
Volker Wahl und Joachim Wittig (Hrsg.): Ernst Abbe. Briefe an seine Jugend- und Studienfreunde Carl Martin und Harald Schütz, 1858 - 1865.
H. Kühnert (Hrsg.): ”Briefe und Dokumente zur Geschichte des VEB Optik Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Genossen
I. Teil: Die wissenschaftliche Grundlegung (Glastechnisches Laboratorium und Versuchshütte), 1882-1884.”
Part II – The Transition to Industrial Production (From the Trial Glassworks to the 1st Production Record), 1884–1886.”
H. Kühnert (Hrsg.): ”Der Briefwechsel zwischen Otto Schott und Ernst Abbe über das optische Glas 1879–1881.”
Ernst Abbe ”Gesammelte Abhandlungen.”
Bd. 1: ”Abhandlungen über die Theorie des Mikroskops.”
Verlag G. Fischer, Jena 1904.
Bd. 2: ”Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen aus verschiedenen Gebieten. Patentschriften. Gedächtnisreden.”
Verlag G. Fischer, Jena 1906.
Bd. 3: ”Vorträge, Reden und Schriften sozialpolitischen und verwandten Inhalts”
Verlag G. Fischer, Jena 1906.
Bd. 4: ”Arbeiten zum Glaswerk zwischen 1882 und 1885.”
Verlag G. Fischer, Jena 1928.
Ernst Abbe: Biografien
Bernd Dörband, Henriette Müller: Ernst Abbe, das unbekannte Genie. Spurensuche in Jena, Eisenach, Göttingen und Frankfurt am Main.
Kerstin Gerth, Wolfgang Wimmer ”Ernst Abbe. Wissenschaftler, Unternehmer, Sozialreformer.”
Jena 2005 (English and German).
Rüdiger Stolz und Joachim Wittig (Hrsg.) ”Carl Zeiss und Ernst Abbe. Leben, Wirken und Bedeutung.”
Harald Volkmann ”Carl Zeiss und Ernst Abbe, ihr Leben und ihr Werk.”
Deutsches Museum – Abhandlungen und Berichte,
Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, München, VDI-Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf, 1966, Heft 2.
N. Günther ”Ernst Abbe, Schöpfer der Zeiss Stiftung.” Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft,
Moritz von Rohr ”Ernst Abbe.”
Verlag G. Fischer, Jena 1940.
Felix Auerbach ”Ernst Abbe – Sein Leben, sein Wirken, seine Persönlichkeit.”
Akadem. Verlagsgesellschaft Leipzig 1918.
Carl Zeiss Foundation
Werner Plumpe (Hrsg.) "Eine Vision. Zwei Unternehmen. 125 Years of the Carl Zeiss Foundation."
C. H. Beck, Munich 2014.
Christoph Matthes "Finanzier, Förderer, Vertragspartner. Die Universität Jena und die optische Industrie (1886 - 1971)"
Böhlau, Köln, Weimar, Wien 2014.
Sebastian Demel "Auf dem Weg zur Verantwortungsgesellschaft. Ernst Abbe und die Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung im deutschen Kaiserreich."
Wallstein, Göttingen 2014.
Wolfgang Wimmer "Das Verhältnis von Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung und Zeisswerk zur Universität bis 1933. In: Matthias Steinbach/Stefan Gerber (Hg.), „Klassische Universität“ und „akademische Provinz“. Studien zur Universität Jena von der Mitte des 19. bis in die dreiß;iger Jahre des 20. Jahrhunderts, Jena/Quedlinburg 2005, S. 59-76.
K. Theiss ”Die Stiftung als Organisationsform der Unternehmung – unter Berücksichtigung praktischer Beispiele.”
Diplomarbeit, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg i. Br. 1964.
Friedrich Schomerus ”Werden und Wesen der Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung.”
G. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 2. Aufl. 1955.
W. David ”Die Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung, ihre Vergangenheit und ihre gegenwärtige rechtliche Lage.”
History of Products
Optic in general
Emil-Heinz Schmitz ”Handbuch zur Geschichte der Optik.”
Teil 1 - 5 und Ergänzungsbände I - III. Wayenborgh, Bonn 1981 bis 1995.
S. Czapski und O. Eppenstein ”Grundzüge der Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe.”
3. Auflage, Verlag J. A. Barth, Leipzig 1924.
Dieter Gerlach ”Geschichte der Mikroskopie.”
Lawrence J. Gubas "A Survey of Zeiss Microscopes 1846-1945."
Las Vegas (USA) 2009.
Güter Döderlein ”Zur Geschichte des Mikroskops.”
Hugo Freund und Alexander Berg ”Geschichte der Mikroskopie”
(Band 1: ”Biologie”) Frankfurt/Main 1963.
Hartmut Thiele ”Carl Zeiss Jena - Entwicklung und Beschreibung der Photoobjektive und ihre Erfinder. Optikkonstrukteure und Rechner, Objektivversuche von 1912 bis 1990, Beschreibung aller Typen, Einsatz der Objektive." Privatdruck, 2. Auflage, München 2007.
Hartmut Thiele ”Legenden und Geschichten der Photoindustrie. Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen von Ernst Leitz, Carl Zeiss und der Deutschen Photoindustrie". Privatdruck, München 2006.
Hartmut Thiele ”Fabrikationsbuch Photooptik I. Carl Zeiss Jena. Photoobjektive und Fertigungsnummern, Fertigungszeiten, Mengen und Lieferungen an die Kameraindustrie von 1890 bis 1928.” Privatdruck, 4. erw. Auflage, München 2012.
Hartmut Thiele ”Fabrikationsbuch Photooptik II. Carl Zeiss Jena. All camera lenses, prototypes, special lenses, production numbers, volumes and deliveries to the camera industry from 1927 to 1991.”
Privatdruck, 3. Auflage, München 2005.
Hartmut Thiele ”Fabrikationsbuch Photooptik III. Carl Zeiss Oberkochen. Photoobjektive und Fertigungsnummern, Fertigungszeiten, Mengen und Lieferungen an die Kameraindustrie von 1948 bis 1996.” Privatdruck, 3. Auflage, München 2009.
Hans T. Seeger "Zeiss-Feldstecher. Handferngläser von 1919 - 1946, Modelle - Merkmale - Mythos.
Hans T. Seeger "Zeiss-Feldstecher. Handferngläser von 1894 - 1919, Modelle - Merkmale - Mythos."
Lawrence J. Gubas ”An Introduction to the binocoulars of Carl Zeiss Jena from 1893 - 1945”.
Lightning Press, NJ, 2004.
Hans T. Seeger ”Militärische Ferngläser und Fernrohre in Heer, Luftwaffe und Marine.”
Hamburg 1996, 2. erweiterte Auflage 2002.
Rolf Riekher ”Fernrohre und ihre Meister.”
Berlin 2. Auflage, 1990.
Hans T. Seeger ”Feldstecher. Ferngläser im Wandel der Zeit.”
Günter Döderlein ”Zur Geschichte des Fernrohrs.”
Albert König und Horst Köhler ”Die Fernrohre und Entfernungsmesser.”
Berlin, 3rd edition, 1959.
H.C. King ”The History of the Telescope.”
Stephan Paetrow "Besser sehen. Carl Zeiss Eyeglass Lenses 1912–2012."
Hanseatischer Merkur, Hamburg 2012.
Günter Döderlein ”Zur Geschichte der Brille.”
Gerhard Kühn und Wolfgang Roos ”Sieben Jahrhunderte Brille.”
(Deutsches Museum: ”Abhandlungen und Berichte” 36, Heft 3, München 1968.
Dierk Hobbie: Die Entwicklung photogrammetrischer Verfahren und Instrumente bei Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen.
Deutsche Geodätische Kommission, Reihe E, 2010.
Rudolf Schumann: Die Entwicklung der photogrammetrischen Geräte in Jena von der Jahrhundertwende bis zum Jahr 1945. In: Klaus Szangolies (Hrsg.): Kompendium Photogrammetrie XVIII. Leipzig, 1986.
Karsten Gaulke und Reimund Torge ”Sterne aus Jena.”
(Deutsches Museum: ”Meisterwerke aus dem Deutschen Museum.” Bonn 1997, S. 28-31).
Ludwig Meier ”Der Himmel auf Erden. Die Welt der Planetarien.”
Leipzig, Heidelberg 1992.
Charles F. Hagar ”Planetarium. Window to the Universe.”
Jena Yearbook of History of Technology and Industry