What is 3D X-ray Microscopy

Application Examples

Capabilities beyond microCT

A new field of 3D X-ray microscopy (XRM) has emerged, bringing dramatic resolution and contrast improvements to X-ray tomographic imaging. It offers more than traditional X-ray microCT for a variety of applications.

 

Materials Characterization: Composites

Composite sample imaged at 0.8 micron voxel. Sample courtesy of Professor Milani, University of British Columbia
Composite sample imaged at 0.8 micron voxel. Sample courtesy of Professor Milani, University of British Columbia
  • The superior contrast and resolution of XRM facilitates easier separation of low Z materials at sub-micron resolution
  • Quantitative information such as void content, fiber orientation, and fiber distribution is easily determined
  • Complex composite image is segmented to a 3D dataset of glass fibers (green), polypropylene fibers (orange), and voids (white)

 

Microstructural Evolution: Metals

Steel sample imaged at 1.5 micron voxel. Sample provided by Sandia National Laboratories
Steel sample imaged at 1.5 micron voxel. Sample provided by Sandia National Laboratories
  • 3D in situ imaging requires samples inside larger load stage. XRM's unique detector design allows for large working distances while maintaining "Resolution at a Distance" (RaaD)
  • RaaD allows you to non-destructively characterize and quantify the evolution of 3D microstructures with high resolution
  • Images show in situ tensile testing of a laser welded steel sample under increasing load. The data reveals a crack initiating from rough surface imperfections (top), as well as the elongation of internal voids (bottom)

 

Process Development: Additive Manufacturing

 

Aluminum additive manufacturing part images at 20 micron full field of view and 3 micron ROI. Sample courtesy of Aalen University
  • XRM allows you to choose an interior sample region for interior tomography while keeping samples intact
  • Unlike microCT, with unique detector design you can select your magnification and field-of-view to optimize resolution - just like in a microscope!
  • XRM scans can measure porosity with sub-micron resolution and be used for 3D printing files (STL)

 

Failure Analysis: Electronics

 

Intact 50 mm 2.5 interposer sample imaged at 14.5 μm and 1 μm voxel resolution
  • Video shows non-destructive imaging of an electronics package with 2.5D interposer after thermal cycling. Internal defects in C4 and micro-bumps are clearly visualized
  • "Resolution-at-a-Distance" (RaaD) allows region of interest imaging at high resolution (<1 micron voxel resolution) with no sample trimming
  • This technique allows observation of failure evolution during progressive testing in many devices, as well as general non-destructive investigation of packaging failures of all types
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