High Resolution 2D & 3D imaging in Geosciences

from Flow to Formation damage

Thursday, 6 April 2017
8:00 am - 4:00 pm
Virginia Tech
North End Center Building 


Pore scale problems involve complex multiphysical processes which direct imaging and modelling cannot always simply address. Their investigation frequently requires direct experimental in situ investigation to acquire fundamental petrophysical properties inaccessible to any other technique. We will showcase the capability of such in situ techniques to examine processes as varied as the measurement of wettability in mixed wet carbonates (figure 1), to the measurement of geomechanical creep in shale rocks, to probing fundamental multiphase displacement mechanisms.

Secondly, the resolutions required to resolve fundamental pore structures frequently come at the expense of a field of view representative of true subsurface heterogeneity. This issue is particularly problematic when dealing with unconventional resources, or heterogeneous carbonate systems, where pore structures may extend down to the sub-nm scale yet samples frequently display heterogeneity on the inch length-scale, or even higher. This challenge is compounded by the fact that frequently the answers to a particular problem of geological interest do not lie with a single imaging technique at a single scale, but require the correlation and fusing of multiple different data sources (figure 2).

Finally we will extend core analysis down to the nano-scale using multiscale and correlative microscopy to finely target locations containing high levels of kerogen hosted porosity for imaging using FIB-SEM and FIB-HIM techniques in an economic North American shale sample. This analysis showed that despite a relatively high porosity, the pores were not connected. This may well be due to the relationship between pore topography (specifically curvature) and topology in this sample. To support this, multiple simulated geometries are analyzed, showing that, while traditional intergranular porosity shows connectivity at around 5 - 10% porosity, authigenic porosity will only achieve similar connectivities at around 30-40% porosity. This has significant implications for the transport mechanisms occurring in subsurface shale reservoirs and how we may be able to predict their behavior inthe future.

Agenda

 08:30 - 09:00 Coffee & Breakfast  
09:00 - 10:00 Pore-Scale Core Analysis: Measuring wettability in situ using pore scale experimental imaging & how we can use data science to bridge gaps in scale
Matthew Andrew, ZEISS Microscopy
10:00 - 10:45 Digital rock technologies and the applications to shale reservoirs and
fracture/proppant interaction
Cheng Chen, Virginia Tech
10:45 - 11:00 Break  
11:00 - 12:00 Bursting the bubble on kerogen-based digital rock physics: How we can link pore topography and topology using nano-scale 3D FIB-SEM and FIB-HIM imaging
Matthew Andrew, ZEISS Microscopy
12:00 - 12:45 Opportunities for fluid flow simulation and
fast-micro tomography
James McClure, Virginia Tech
12:45 - 14:00 Lunch  
14:00 - 14:45
Advances in correlative microscopy for Materials Science
John Morreale, ZEISS Microscopy
14:45 - 15:30  Emerging CT technologies for biomedical applications
Guohua Cao, Virginia Tech
15:30 - 16:00 The frontiers of Geoscience: How new microscopy techniques could change the landscape of the classroom, the lab and the mine site 
Matthew Andrew, ZEISS Microscopy
16:00 - Close Discussion  

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Figure 1: Wettability measurements on <i>in situ</i> multiphase fluid images using non-invasive 3D X-ray microscopy. The high porosity lithology sampled on the left shows an oil wet system, with brine bulging into oil and the oil residing in the corners of large pores and in small pores, whereas the low porosity lithology exhibits a qualitatively opposed wettability (water wet).
Figure 1: Wettability measurements on in situ multiphase fluid images using non-invasive 3D X-ray microscopy. The high porosity lithology sampled on the left shows an oil wet system, with brine bulging into oil and the oil residing in the corners of large pores and in small pores, whereas the low porosity lithology exhibits a qualitatively opposed wettability (water wet).
Figure 2: 3D mineralogy by correlating 2D chemical information from quantitative EDS mapping with 3D structural information from X-ray microscopy.
Figure 2: 3D mineralogy by correlating 2D chemical information from quantitative EDS mapping with 3D structural information from X-ray microscopy.
Figure 3: 3D rendering of FIB-SEM volume of organic hosted porosity from subsurface onshore US shale, imaged using 2.5 x 2.5 x 5nm voxels. Kerogen hosted porosity is shown in blue, kerogen in red, quartz in green and pyrite in yellow
Figure 3: 3D rendering of FIB-SEM volume of organic hosted porosity from subsurface onshore US shale, imaged using 2.5 x 2.5 x 5nm voxels. Kerogen hosted porosity is shown in blue, kerogen in red, quartz in green and pyrite in yellow

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