In recent years, advances in low-kV SEM imaging have resulted in new capabilities and applications. Improvements in spatial resolution supplement the advantages of low kV imaging, which include the ability to see surface information from both topography and material contrast perspectives, image nonconductive, and beam sensitive materials. In this discussion, Dr. Iwona Jóźwik will describe and explain the principles of low kV imaging and highlight various contrast mechanisms to study III–V semiconductors and electronic materials. The strong contrast mechanisms observed with the Gemini column provide the clear ability to distinguish dopant types (p or n type) and density variations in III–V semiconductor devices and quantum wells. Insights into identifying and understanding artifacts and damage from different sample preparation methods will also be presented.
Key Learning Objectives
- Understand the advantages of low kV SEM for surface sensitive imaging.
- Learn about contrast mechanisms with SE and BSE signals at low kV to differentiate various materials in heterostructures and study the dopant type and distribution.
- Identify artifacts and damage from various sample preparation methods.