Cytopathology or cytology aims to detect diseases on the cellular level by the study of single cells and cell structures. This pathology discipline was founded in 1928 by the Greek medicine pioneer George Papanicolaou who also invented the “Pap smear”. These smear tests are now commonly used in cytopathology where clinical samples from a wide range of body sites are spread and deposited across a glass microscope slide, resulting in a thin film of cells for subsequent staining and examination by light microscopy.
Prominent examples for exfoliative cytology are the aforementioned Pap smear, where cells are scraped from the cervix with a cervical spatula, or cells that are harvested from bodily fluids such as blood and urine, pleural and pericardial effusion, or ascites from the peritoneum. In intervention or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) the pathologist uses a small needle to collect cells in various body organs for diagnostic analysis in gynecologic, lymph node, thyroid, breast, liver, lung, kidney or pancreas cytology. These cytological screenings are most commonly used to search for cells going through abnormal changes called hyperplasia and dysplasia that may become cancer cells.
A very good cellular differentiation and clearly visible nuclear details are absolute prerequisites in cytology for carcinoma and tumor cell diagnosis. Cytologists and pathologists rely on crystal-clear images of their samples with the highest color fidelity in brightfield, phase contrast, DIC, or fluorescence. While cytological stains such as Papanicolaou’s (PAP stain), Giemsa, or Romanowski-type result in specific staining of cellular features, it is the optical quality of the microscope, the fidelity of the attached camera for digital documentation, and the ergonomic design of the instrument that can make all the difference when screening patient samples.
ZEISS Axiolab 5
Axiolab 5 is made for the clinical routine work that goes on every day in your cytology lab. It makes you more efficient in screening PAP smears. You can access all the main controls with just one hand, including the Snap button, stage drive, and focus adjustment. Ergotubes and the height and torque adaptable stage handle allow you to work in a comfortable position, even during extended use. The white LED illumination with very high color rendering index allows you to visualize your cytology samples in true color. The constant color temperature of the LED and the light manager facilitate system operation and digital documentation. Combine the robust Axiolab 5 with the microscope camera Axiocam 208 color and take full advantage of the smart microscopy concept: you'll be experiencing a completely new form of digital documentation in your daily clinical routine. Just focus your sample through the eyepieces and press the Snap button on the microscope for crisp 4k images in true color. The digital image will look exactly like you see it through the eyepieces, with all the details and subtle color differences clearly visible. You don't need to switch back and forth between eyepieces and computer. You can stay focused on your sample since manual camera parameter adjustments are not necessary.
ZEISS Axioscope 5
Axioscope 5 with Axiocam 208 color makes screening and documenting your cytology specimens such as Pap smears very efficient. Axioscope 5 offers an Ergo-stage, that allows to individually adapt and fix the stage handle in a comfortable position. With the very high color rendering index LED you will clearly see the subtle differences in your stained cytology samples and experience all the advantages of LED illumination such as stable color temperature, low energy consumption and long lifetime. The color impression shows up in the 4k camera image exactly the same as it appears through the eyepieces. This ergonomic and smart microscope makes automatic adjustments for brightness and white balance to keep digital documentation for your clinical routine tasks easy. All you have to do is focus on your sample, press the ergonomic Snap button on the microscope, and that's it. Switching back and forth between microscope and computer is not necessary anymore.
ZEISS Axio Imager
Axio Imager 2 is designed as your platform for an impressive amount of applications in cytology, cytogenetics, histology, hematology, microbiology and pathology. Axio Imager 2 resolves finest details of your samples - from tissue sections in pathology to blood smears in hematology, single-cell imaging in microbiology or even multi-dyed FISH specimens. Auto-configure all motorized components with Smart Setup of the ZEN imaging software. Acquire fluorescence images with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Use your motorized Axio Imager 2 with equipment tailored precisely to your needs - and upgrade your system easily at any time. The smart automated contrast settings let you work quickly and efficiently.
Technology Note: A Quick Guide to Cytological Staining
A Quick Guide to Cytological Staining
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