Investigate Rocks, Ores, Minerals, Precious Metals and Advanced Materials

Raw Materials and Natural Resources

Raw Materials

Multiscale Solutions to Maximize the Value of Your Assets

ZEISS provides the broadest portfolio of imaging solutions – light, X-ray, electron and ion microscopy with advanced data analytics – to visualize, characterize and quantify the properties and processes of your natural resources. Our solutions link length scales via correlative workflows, delivering knowledge from data to provide the most informed decision-making.

  • Characterize and classify the properties of your raw materials
  • Understand your reservoir rock’s impact on reservoir performance
  • Increase recovery of ores, gems and precious metals
  • Analyze the structure and evolution of your steel and other metals from micro- to nano-scale
  • Use a range of modalities in multiple dimensions to achieve a full understanding of your advanced materials


Basic concepts in microscopy
Through various sections, learn more about the principles of microscopy and get detailed advice and comments on how to use the different methods with your microscope. For instance, start with the concepts of image formation, numerical aperture and the Köhler illumination.

How the Microscope Forms Images

Optical microscopes belong to a class of instruments that are said to be diffraction limited, meaning that resolution is determined in part by the number of diffraction orders created by the specimen that can be successfully captured by the objective and imaged by the optical system.

Basic Microscopy

Köhler Illumination

Illumination of the specimen is the most important variable in achieving high-quality images in microscopy and critical photomicrography. Köhler illumination was first introduced in 1893 by August Köhler of the Carl Zeiss corporation as a method of providing the optimum specimen illumination.

Achieving High-Quality Images

Numerical Aperture and Resolution

The numerical aperture of a microscope objective is the measure of its ability to gather light and to resolve fine specimen detail while working at a fixed object (or specimen) distance. Resolution is determined by the number of diffracted wavefront orders captured by the objective.

Resolve Fine Specimen Detail