Microscopy Solutions for Advanced Packaging and 3D Heterogeneous Integration

Improve productivity with 3D imaging and analysis

With today’s semiconductor devices, transistor scaling alone is no longer sufficient to increase performance and system miniaturization. Innovations in semiconductor packaging, such as new 2.5D/3D designs using through-silicon vias (TSVs) and chiplets using hybrid bonding, enable system-in-package (SIP) and heterogeneous integration. Characterization and failure analysis of these advanced technologies are critical for overall development and delivery of high-yielding, reliable products.

New package architectures introduce new types of defects buried deep below many layers, challenging the entire failure analysis workflow – from electrical characterization to physical analysis and root cause determination. Traditional workflows for high-resolution package analysis of buried features lack the required combination of speed, resolution, and 3D information to understand the problems.

Submicron Resolution and Fast Workflows for Failure Analysis and Characterization

ZEISS solutions achieve significant advancements for package failure analysis workflows. By providing superior imaging and cross-sectional analysis, as well as a correlated workflow using artificial intelligence (AI), ZEISS delivers new insights from macroscale to nanoscale with fast time to results.

ZEISS microscopy solutions include:

  • A unique portfolio of non-destructive 3D X-ray imaging tools that provides exceptional imaging and contrast at submicron resolutions, producing 3D datasets that can be viewed from any orientation using interactive virtual cross sections
  • Optional AI reconstruction technologies, which enable up to 4X faster 3D X-ray scans while preserving high image quality
  • A FIB-SEM with integrated femtosecond-laser providing a site-specific solution for rapid access to deeply buried features with superior imaging contrast and faster speeds than a Xenon plasma FIB
  • Correlated workflows, which streamline time to results by connecting instruments to quickly navigate between multiple length scales and imaging modalities

Advanced Semiconductor Packaging Applications
Novel package technologies are extending Moore’s Law. This enables timely introduction of new processes and faster yield optimization. Our suite of microscopy instruments enables 2D and 3D package analysis at high resolution and high throughput for package development and failure analysis.

Non-destructive 3D Tomography of Heterogeneous Integration Package

3D X-ray Image of Heterogeneous Package

3D Analysis of Heterogeneous Integration Package

3D X-ray microscopy reconstruction highlights interconnect bridge connecting multiple chips.
75 µm C4 bumps and 30 µm microbumps are clearly visible.

Acquired by ZEISS Xradia Versa X-ray microscope

Heterogeneous Package Microbumps

Virtual Cross Section of Microbumps

Virtual cross section from same analysis highlights 30 µm microbumps imaged at 0.8 µm/voxel resolution.

Acquired by ZEISS Xradia Versa X-ray microscope


Virtual Cross Section of C4 Bumps

Virtual cross section from same analysis details 75 μm C4 bumps imaged at 0.8 μm/voxel resolution.

Acquired by ZEISS Xradia Versa X-ray microscope

Nanoscale 3D X-ray Imaging of Smartphone Mainboard

3D X-ray Image of Smartphone Main Control Board

X-ray Image of Complete Mainboard

Large field of view 3D X-ray scan of package-on-package (POP) from a smartphone main control board imaged at 10 µm/voxel.

Acquired by ZEISS Xradia Context microCT

Solder Balls in Smartphone Main Control Board

Virtual Cross Section of Solder Balls

Virtual cross section from same analysis showing solder balls connecting the bionic chip to the main substrate imaged at 10 µm/voxel.

Acquired by ZEISS Xradia Context microCT

Solder Bumps in Smartphone Main Control Board

Virtual Slice of Solder Bumps

Virtual cross section of a different layer in the same sample showing solder bumps connecting the 3D NAND flash chip to the main substrate imaged at 10 µm/voxel.

Acquired by ZEISS Xradia Context microCT

Rapid Analysis of Deeply Buried 3D Package Interconnects

Crossbeam laser FIB-SEM provides fast, high-quality cross sections of 25 µm diameter Cu-pillar microbumps and BEOL structures buried 860 µm deep in a 3D integrated circuit (IC) package with total time to results of <1 hour. Left: 3D IC prepared using laser ablation and FIB polishing. Right: Backscattered electron image of microbump.

3D Package Interconnects
Large FOV of 2.5D Package Interconnects

High-resolution, Extreme Field of View Imaging for 2.5D Package Interconnects

The distortion-free, large field of view provided by GeminiSEM FE-SEM enables high productivity and efficient analysis of package and BEOL structures.

Inset: Close up of 2.5D package cross section shows grain structure and solder crack in 20 µm microbump.

Intermetallic Layer Analysis of Solder Bumps

Cross section of a flip-chip solder bump shows material contrast, channeling contrast of grain structure, and adhesion.

Inset: Failure at the UBM RDL interface.

Imaged with GeminiSEM FE-SEM

Intermetallic Layers in Solder Bumps