Qualitative and quantitative structure analysis

Qualitative and quantitative structure analysis

By means of the structural analysis of polycrystalline materials, significant correlations between production, microstructure and the expected properties of a material are determined. Many property-relevant structural features such as grain size and grain form, segregations, errors and textures can only be detected by microscopic analysis. The microstructure of a material is characterized by the complete concatenation of order fields (crystalline or amorphous type) with intervening interfaces (phase and grain boundaries). Materialography as a discipline describes the investigation of the structural composition by optical means and methods and aims to describe the structure both qualitatively and quantitatively on the basis of various parameters and characterize them. 

Goal/
Structural feature of interest
 


Characterization

  • Type of structure (primary/secondary structure; castings/ deformation state) 

Description based on characteristic features, such as preferred directions, dendritic structures, grain shape 

Aluminum cast (l) and rolled state (r), Barker anodized
Aluminum cast (l) and rolled state (r), Barker anodized

Aluminum cast (l) and rolled state (r), Barker anodized, AxioImager.Z2m, polarized light with selective tint, Objective: 5x, magnification: 50x

  • Definition of existing phases

Description of the present phases based on shape, size, arrangement, area percentage, color

Aluminum alloy with multiple phases
Aluminum alloy with multiple phases

Aluminum alloy with multiple phases, AxioImager.Z2m, bright field illumination, Objective: 50x, magnification: 500x

  • Precipitations (carbides, nitrides, silicides, intermetallic phases)

Description based on form and color, classification according to standards (eg Stahleisenpruefblatt 1520 -. Carbides in steels)

Carbides in quenched and tempered steel 100Cr6, Nital etched
Carbides in quenched and tempered steel 100Cr6, Nital etched

Carbides in quenched and tempered steel 100Cr6, Nital etched, AxioImager.Z2m, bright field illumination, Objective: 100x Oil, magnification 1,000x

  • Structural defects (pores, voids, cracks) 

Characterization according to shape, size, proportion and distribution (e.g. VDG test sheet P202)

Pores in Aluminum weld
Pores in Aluminum weld

Pores in Aluminum weld, AxioZoom.V16, coaxial light, Objective: 0.5x, magnification: 10x

  • Particle size/shape (influence of thermal and mechanical processes)

Characterization on direct measurements (e.g. DIN EN ISO 643, ASTM E112)

Aluminum cast (l) and rolled state (r), Barker anodized
Aluminum cast (l) and rolled state (r), Barker anodized

Aluminum cast (l) and rolled state (r), Barker anodized, AxioImager.Z2m, polarized light with selective tint, Objective: 5x, magnification: 50x

  • Contaminations (non-metallic inclusions in steel, oxide inclusions in cast materials, foreign inclusions in ceramics)   

Characterization based on shape and color according to different standards (e.g. EN ISO 10247, ASTM E45 -. Content of nonmetallic inclusions in steels)   

Aluminum alloy with multiple phases
Aluminum alloy with multiple phases

Aluminum alloy with multiple phases, AxioImager.Z2m, bright field illumination, Objective: 50x, magnification: 500x

  • Homogeneity (density distribution in sintered materials, segregations)

Characterization via quantitative measurements or qualitatively on the microscopic image

Carbides in quenched and tempered steel 100Cr6, Nital etched
Carbides in quenched and tempered steel 100Cr6, Nital etched

Carbides in quenched and tempered steel 100Cr6, Nital etched, AxioImager.Z2m, bright field illumination, Objective: 100x Oil, magnification 1,000x

  • Textures (solidification or deformation textures)

Microstructure in castings depends on geometries or cooling conditions or textures by forming

Pores in Aluminum weld
Pores in Aluminum weld

Pores in Aluminum weld, AxioZoom.V16, coaxial light, Objective: 0.5x, magnification: 10x

Recommended Products

For Qualitative and Quantitative Structure Analysis

Axio Imager 2 for Material Research

Your upright microscope for advanced materials research. Axio Imager 2 gives you accurate and reproducible results for qualitative and quantitative structure analysis

 

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Axio Zoom.V16 for Materials

Enjoy highest resolution and image quality in large fields of view. And then use the 16x zoom to examine finest details of your samples

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