Water quality monitoring
Industrial waste water
Photometric sensors are ideal for the constant industrial monitoring of essential water processing, filtration and treatment. Water must be analyzed and purified before it enters the sewage system or other waterways to fulfill regulatory standards and preserve the environment. Key elements such as nitrates, nitrites, oxygen demand, organic compounds or turbidity must be tracked.
Continuously monitoring the drinking water delivery chain from natural reservoirs to the distribution network is essential to avoid harmful effects on human health. Depending on local directives, specific microbiological or chemical compounds must be below certain threshold values to prevent health risks to consumers. Important parameters are nitrates, nitrites, chloride and heavy metals such as lead, copper and chromium.
Rising levels of pollution and the deterioration in quality of our natural water will be an ongoing challenge for the future. Parameters such as turbidity, chemical and biological oxygen demand, nitrates and chloride are indicators of the water condition in rivers, lakes, coastal or maritime regions. They have to be tracked in order to protect the environment and detect harmful sources of contamination.
Air quality monitoring
Open-path air monitoring
In atmospheric research, UV-VIS differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is an eminent tool for measuring the concentration of trace gases. Depending on the specific gas, sensitivities in the range of ppb...ppt can be achieved. ZEISS MCS-CCD is ideal for this specific application. It combines stable wavelength calibration and negligible sensitivity to temperature changes with fast readout and a high resolution. Furthermore, gaseous contaminant identification plays an important role in quality control of gas suppliers and or beverages industry as well. Mono- & polychromator gratings can be used for in-situ, open-path air monitoring to detect gaseous contaminants in gas streams, even at high temperatures.
Raman Spectroscopy is increasingly applied to measure NO2, CO2 and other gaseous contamination. Raman spectrometers use blazed plane gratings with high efficiency and low stray light to enhance the dynamic range of the instrument.
Identifying fingerprints of soil
VIS-NIR spectroscopy identifies contaminants in the constituent parts of soil – whether in the lab or on the field. Soil consists of three main elements: water, clay minerals and organic matter. With reflectance measurement in the NIR range, water content (absorption at 1435 and 1940 nm) and clay mineral fingerprints are identified by calibrating reference measurements to spectral signatures. ZEISS spectrometers like the PGS NIR and the MMS series have a compact design without moving parts. They are portable, cost-effective tools for soil measurement, designed for environments with temperature changes, shock and vibration – guaranteeing stable wavelength calibration and high SNR. VIS-NIR helps understand soil health and ensure food safety.
Hyperspectral imaging combines spectroscopic and imaging information to understand soil contaminants with high aerial resolution to adapt soil improvement measures locally.