ZEISS Sigma​
Product

ZEISS Sigma​

FE-SEM for High-Quality Imaging & Advanced Analytical Microscopy

The ZEISS Sigma family combines field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) technology with an excellent user experience. Structure your imaging and analysis routines and increase productivity.  Study new materials, particles for quality inspection or biological or geological specimens. Make no compromises in high resolution imaging – go to low voltages and benefit from enhanced resolution and contrast at 1 kV or below. Execute advanced analytical microscopy using best-in-class EDS geometry and get analytical data at twice the speed and with more precision.​


With the Sigma family you are entering the world of high-end nano-analysis.

  • Sigma 360 is the core imaging facility’s choice — an intuitive FE-SEM for imaging and analytics.
  • Sigma 560 uses best-in-class EDS geometry to deliver high throughput analytics and enable automated in situ experiments.
Polysterene, imaged with NanoVP lite mode.
Polysterene, imaged with NanoVP lite mode.

Sigma 360

The Core Facility’s Choice. Intuitive Acquisition.

  • Be guided expertly from setup to AI-based results. Discover an intuitive imaging workflow.

  • See the difference at 1 kV and below. Achieve enhanced resolution and optimized contrast.

  • Perform VP imaging at the extremes to achieve excellent results on non-conductors.
  • NanoVP at work

    An Intuitive Imaging Workflow Guides You

    From Setup to AI-based Results

    • Get expert results even if you’re a novice user. Benefit from fast time-to-image and save time on training with an easy-to-use, easy-to-learn workflow that lets you streamline each step from navigation to post-processing.
    • Software automation in ZEISS SmartSEM Touch starts you off with navigation, parameter setup and image acquisition.
    • Then ZEN core comes into play: it comes with task-specific toolkits and is optimally suited for post-processing. The most recommended ones are: The AI Toolkit lets you segment images based on machine learning. Combine multi-modal experiments with the Connect Toolkit. Or use the Materials Apps to analyze microstructure, grain size or layer thickness.
        
  • From Setup to AI-based Results

    See the Difference at 1 kV and Below

    Enhanced Resolution. Optimized Contrast

    • The optical column is key to performance in imaging and analytics. Sigma operates with ZEISS Gemini 1 electron optics which provide excellent resolution on any sample, especially at low voltages.
    • Low-kV resolution for Sigma 360 is now specified at 500 V with 1.9 nm. An improvement in 1 kV resolution of more than 10%—at 1.3 nm—has been achieved by minimizing chromatic aberrations.
    • Imaging is now easier than ever before, even on challenging samples, even with backscatter detection in variable pressure (VP) mode.
  • Accomplish VP Imaging at the Extremes

    Accomplish VP Imaging at the Extremes

    NanoVP lite Mode for Analytics and Imaging

    • The new   NanoVP lite mode and new detectors make it easy to achieve high-quality data from non-conductors below 5 kV.
    • Consequently, imaging and EDS analytics are enhanced and deliver more surface-sensitive information, faster acquisition times and enhanced primary beam current for faster EDS mapping.
    • New detectors such as the aBSD1 (annular backscatter electron detector) or the next generation C2D (cascade current) give you the benefit of excellent images at low voltage.
High resolution at 500 V: the measured size of this terrace of a sintered, nano-scaled sphere out of Al2O3 is 3 nm. Acquired with Sigma 560, Inlens SE detector, 500 V.

Sigma 560

High Throughput Analytics. Automated in situ Experiments.

  • Efficient analytics of real-world samples: SEM-based analyses with speed and versatility.
  • Automate your in situ experiments: A fully integrated lab for unattended testing.
  • Image challenging samples below 1 kV: Collect comprehensive sample information.
  • Efficient Analytics of Real-world Samples

    Efficient Analytics of Real-world Samples

    Investigate with Versatility and Gain Speed in EDS

    • Sigma 560’s best-in-class EDS geometry increases your analytical productivity. The two 180° diametrically-opposed EDS ports guarantee throughput and shadow free mapping, even at low beam current and low acceleration voltage.

    • Additional ports for EBSD and WDS on the chamber allow for analytics beyond EDS.

    • Even non-conductors can be analyzed with the new NanoVP lite mode with more signal and contrast.

    • The new aBSD4 detector delivers images on highly topographical samples easily.
  • In situ heating and tensile experiment on steel.

    Automate Your in situ Experiments

    A Fully Integrated Lab for Unattended Testing

    • The in situ lab for Sigma, a fully-integrated solution, enables operator-independent results of heating and tensile tests in an unattended, automated workflow.
    • Extend your workflow further by analyzing nano-scaled features in 3D: perform 3D STEM tomography or execute AI-based image segmentation.
    • The new aBSD4 permits live 3D surface modeling (3DSM).
  • Image Challenging Samples Easily

    Image Challenging Samples Easily

    See the Difference at 1 kV and Below

    • Achieve best informative imaging and analysis at 1 kV or even 500 V: low-kV resolution for Sigma 560 is specified as 1.5 nm at 500 V.
    • Investigate challenging samples easily under variable pressure in the new NanoVP lite mode, with acceleration voltages as low as 3 kV, using either the new aBSD or C2D detector.
    • If you are studying electronic devices, you will want to maintain a clean environment. Protect your chamber from contamination by means of a (highly recommended) plasma cleaner, and with the new large airlock that permits shuttling of 6” wafers.

Technology

Schematic cross-section of Gemini optical column with beam booster, Inlens detector and Gemini objective.

Schematic cross-section of Gemini optical column with beam booster, Inlens detector and Gemini objective.

Schematic cross-section of Gemini optical column with beam booster, Inlens detector and Gemini objective.

Gemini 1 Optics

Gemini 1 optics consists of three elements: objective lens, beam booster, and Inlens detection concept. The objective lens design combines electrostatic and magnetic fields to maximize optical performance while reducing field influences at the sample to a minimum. This enables excellent imaging, even on challenging samples such as magnetic materials. The Inlens detection concept ensures efficient signal detection by detecting secondary (SE) and/or backscattered (BSE) electrons while minimizing time-to-image. The beam booster guarantees small probe sizes and high signal-to-noise ratios.

Gemini 1 column of Sigma with detectors. 1 Inlens detectors, SE or Duo. 2 ETSE detector, 3 VPSE, 4 C2D, 5 aSTEM, 6 / 7 Advanced EDS detection, & different backscatter detectors, e.g. aBSD1.

Schematic cross-section of Gemini 1 optical column with detectors.

Gemini 1 column of Sigma with detectors. 1 Inlens detectors, SE or Duo. 2 ETSE detector, 3 VPSE, 4 C2D, 5 aSTEM, 6 / 7 Advanced EDS detection, & different backscatter detectors, e.g. aBSD1.

Gemini 1 column of Sigma with detectors. 1 Inlens detectors, SE or Duo. 2 ETSE detector, 3 VPSE, 4 C2D, 5 aSTEM, 6 / 7 Advanced EDS detection, & different backscatter detectors, e.g. aBSD1.

Schematic cross-section of Gemini 1 optical column with detectors

Flexible Detection

Sigma features a suite of different detectors. Characterize your samples with the latest detection technology. Get topographical, high resolution information with the ETSE and the Inlens detector for high vacuum mode. Obtain crisp images in variable pressure mode with the VPSE or the C2D detector. Produce high resolution transmission images with the aSTEM detector.  Investigate composition and topography with different optional BSE detectors, e.g., the aBSD detector.

  

Standard VP | modes, gas distribution (pink), electron beam skirting (green).
NanoVP lite  modes, gas distribution
Standard VP (left) and NanoVP lite (right) modes, gas distribution (pink), electron beam skirting (green).

NanoVP lite Mode

Work with the NanoVP lite mode for analytics and imaging. Benefit from better image quality especially at low kV and get analytical data faster and more precise.
  • In NanoVP lite the skirt effect and the beam gas path length (BGPL) are reduced. The reduced skirt leads to an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio in SE and BSE imaging.
  • The retractable aBSD with its five annular segments delivers excellent material contrast: it carries the beam sleeve and is fitted under the pole piece during NanoVP lite operation. It provides high throughput and low voltage compositional and topographical contrast imaging and is suitable for VP and HV (high vacuum).

Applications

  • The surface of a polystyrene sample was fractured to understand crack formation and adhesion at interfaces in polymers
  • MSC capsules (hollow mesoporous silica) for drug delivery.
  • As carbon nanotubes (CNT) imaged with low voltage. Sigma 560, 500 V, Inlens SE detector.
  • Al2O3 spheres. Terraces of sintered particles are visible under surface-sensitive imaging with high resolution at 500 V.
  • The surface of a particle from a cathode foil of a battery.
  • CVD-grown MoS2 2D crystals on Si/SiO2 substrate: The RISE image demonstrates wrinkles and overlapping parts of the MoS2 crystals (green), multilayers (blue) and single layers (red), image width 32 µm.
  • In situ heating and tensile experiment on steel.
  • The surface of a polystyrene sample was fractured to understand crack formation and adhesion at interfaces in polymers
    The surface of a polystyrene sample was fractured to understand crack formation and adhesion at interfaces in polymers

    The surface of a fractured polystyrene sample was imaged to understand crack formation and adhesion at interfaces in polymers. Sigma 560,
    3 kV, NanoVP lite mode at 60 Pa chamber pressure, C2D G2.

     

    The surface of a fractured polystyrene sample was imaged to understand crack formation and adhesion at interfaces in polymers. Sigma 560,
    3 kV, NanoVP lite mode at 60 Pa chamber pressure, C2D G2.

     

  • MSC capsules (hollow mesoporous silica) for drug delivery.
    MSC capsules (hollow mesoporous silica) for drug delivery.
    Courtesy of Dr. V. Brune, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cologne, Germany.

    MSC capsules (hollow mesoporous silica) for drug delivery. Backscatter imaging reveals iron oxide core in silica-nanocapsules. Sigma 560, HDBSD, 5kV.
     

    Courtesy of Dr. V. Brune, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cologne, Germany.

    MSC capsules (hollow mesoporous silica) for drug delivery. Backscatter imaging reveals iron oxide core in silica-nanocapsules. Sigma 560, HDBSD, 5kV.
     

  • As carbon nanotubes (CNT) imaged with low voltage.
    As carbon nanotubes (CNT) imaged with low voltage.

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) imaged with low voltage. Sigma 560, 500 V, Inlens SE detector.
     

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) imaged with low voltage. Sigma 560, 500 V, Inlens SE detector.
     

  • Al2O3 spheres. Terraces of sintered particles are visible under surface-sensitive imaging with high resolution at 500 V.
    Al2O3 spheres. Terraces of sintered particles are visible under surface-sensitive imaging with high resolution at 500 V.

    Al2O3 spheres. Terraces of sintered particles are visible under surface-sensitive imaging with high resolution at 500 V. Some distances between terraces are as small as 3 nm. Sigma 560, 500 V, Inlens SE.
     

    Al2O3 spheres. Terraces of sintered particles are visible under surface-sensitive imaging with high resolution at 500 V. Some distances between terraces are as small as 3 nm. Sigma 560, 500 V, Inlens SE.
     

  • The surface of a particle from a cathode foil of a battery.
    The surface of a particle from a cathode foil of a battery.

    The surface of a particle from a cathode foil of a battery. Material contrast is used to identify the binder (darker material) on the Li-NMC, imaged with the aBSD.

    The surface of a particle from a cathode foil of a battery. Material contrast is used to identify the binder (darker material) on the Li-NMC, imaged with the aBSD.

  • CVD-grown MoS2 2D crystals on Si/SiO2 substrate: The RISE image demonstrates wrinkles and overlapping parts of the MoS2 crystals (green), multilayers (blue) and single layers (red), image width 32 µm.

    CVD-grown MoS2 2D crystals on Si/SiO2 substrate: The RISE image demonstrates wrinkles and overlapping parts of the MoS2 crystals (green), multilayers (blue) and single layers (red), image width 32 µm.

    CVD-grown MoS2D crystals on Si/SiO2 substrate: The RISE image demonstrates wrinkles and overlapping parts of the MoS2 crystals (green), multilayers (blue) and single layers (red), image width 32 µm.

  • In situ heating and tensile experiment on steel. SEM imaging and EBSD analytics were performed simultaneously to investigate stress strain curves.

Materials Science

Discover images of materials samples such as polymers, fibers, molybdenum disulfide and more.

  • The delicate open structure of a radiolarian is imaged effortlessly by the ETSE detector at 1 kV under high vacuum , image width 183 µm.
  • Mushroom spores imaged at 1 kV at high vacuum. These delicate, fragile structures can be imaged easily with Sigma 500 at low voltage.
  • Tricellaria inopinata
  • 3D brain ultrastructure using serial block-face imaging
  • The delicate open structure of a radiolarian is imaged effortlessly by the ETSE detector at 1 kV under high vacuum , image width 183 µm.

    The delicate open structure of a radiolarian is imaged effortlessly by the ETSE detector at 1 kV under high vacuum , image width 183 µm.

    The delicate open structure of a radiolarian is imaged effortlessly by the ETSE detector at 1 kV under high vacuum , image width 183 µm.

  • Mushroom spores imaged at 1 kV at high vacuum. These delicate, fragile structures can be imaged easily with Sigma 500 at low voltage.
    Mushroom spores imaged at 1 kV at high vacuum. These delicate, fragile structures can be imaged easily with Sigma 500 at low voltage.

    Mushroom spores imaged at 1 kV at high vacuum. These delicate, fragile structures can be imaged easily with Sigma 500 at low voltage.

    Mushroom spores imaged at 1 kV at high vacuum. These delicate, fragile structures can be imaged easily with Sigma 500 at low voltage.

  • Tricellaria inopinata
    Tricellaria inopinata
    Courtesy of Anna Seybold and Harald Hausen, Sars Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Norway.

    Ultrastructure of the bryozoan Tricellaria inopinata, a sessile marine species, field of view 30 µm. Acquired with ZEISS Sigma 560, Sense BSD detector, 1 kV, 30 pA.
     

    Courtesy of Anna Seybold and Harald Hausen, Sars Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Norway.

    Ultrastructure of the bryozoan Tricellaria inopinata, a sessile marine species, field of view 30 µm. Acquired with ZEISS Sigma 560, Sense BSD detector, 1 kV, 30 pA.
     

  • 3D brain ultrastructure using serial block-face imaging
    3D brain ultrastructure using serial block-face imaging
    Courtesy of Dr. Peter Munro and Hannah Armer, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology.

    Automatic acquisition of 3D brain ultrastructure using serial block-face imaging. Astrocyte (cyan) was identified and segmented. 
     

    Courtesy of Dr. Peter Munro and Hannah Armer, UCL Institute of Ophthalmology.

    Automatic acquisition of 3D brain ultrastructure using serial block-face imaging. Astrocyte (cyan) was identified and segmented. 
     

Life Sciences

Learn more about of the micro- and nanostructure of protozoans or fungi and reveal ultrastructure on block face samples or thin sections.

  • Rock sample imaged with the YAG-BSD which delivers images at high speeds due to the performance in light conducting of the YAG crystal, imaged at 20 kV.
  • Nickel sulphide ore. Mineralogic mineral EDS map, image width 3.1 mm. Sample: courtesy of the University of Leicester, UK.
  • Iron Mineralogy: Raman identification of iron ore mineral, SEM image and Raman maps overlaid. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).
  • Iron Mineralogy, Raman spectra: Differences in the spectra of hematite are attributed to the different orientations of the crystals. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).
  • Gneiss mineral zoning
  • Rock sample imaged with the YAG-BSD which delivers images at high speeds due to the performance in light conducting of the YAG crystal, imaged at 20 kV.
    Rock sample imaged with the YAG-BSD which delivers images at high speeds due to the performance in light conducting of the YAG crystal, imaged at 20 kV.

    Rock sample imaged with the YAG-BSD which delivers images at high speeds due to the performance in light conducting of the YAG crystal, imaged at 20 kV.

    Rock sample imaged with the YAG-BSD which delivers images at high speeds due to the performance in light conducting of the YAG crystal, imaged at 20 kV.

  • Nickel sulphide ore. Mineralogic mineral EDS map, image width 3.1 mm. Sample: courtesy of the University of Leicester, UK.
    Nickel sulphide ore. Mineralogic mineral EDS map, image width 3.1 mm. Sample: courtesy of the University of Leicester, UK.

    Nickel sulphide ore. Mineralogic mineral EDS map, image width 3.1 mm. Sample: courtesy of the University of Leicester, UK.

    Nickel sulphide ore. Mineralogic mineral EDS map, image width 3.1 mm. Sample: courtesy of the University of Leicester, UK.

  • Iron Mineralogy: Raman identification of iron ore mineral, SEM image and Raman maps overlaid. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).
    Iron Mineralogy: Raman identification of iron ore mineral, SEM image and Raman maps overlaid. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).

    Iron Mineralogy: Raman identification of iron ore mineral, SEM image and Raman maps overlaid. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).

    Iron Mineralogy: Raman identification of iron ore mineral, SEM image and Raman maps overlaid. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).

  • Iron Mineralogy, Raman spectra: Differences in the spectra of hematite are attributed to the different orientations of the crystals. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).
    Iron Mineralogy, Raman spectra: Differences in the spectra of hematite are attributed to the different orientations of the crystals. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).

    Iron Mineralogy, Raman spectra: Differences in the spectra of hematite are attributed to the different orientations of the crystals. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).

    Iron Mineralogy, Raman spectra: Differences in the spectra of hematite are attributed to the different orientations of the crystals. (Hematite is red, blue, green, orange and pink; goethite is light blue).

  • Quantitative EDS major element heatmap (Ca) of garnet-bearing gneiss highlighting geochemical zoning within key minerals.
     

    Quantitative EDS major element heatmap (Ca) of garnet-bearing gneiss highlighting geochemical zoning within key minerals.
     

Geosciences and Natural Resources

Explore rocks, ores and metals.

  • Non-conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles used as pigments and opacifying agents can be imaged easily at 40 Pa in VP mode with the C2D.
  • 25 – 50 nm iron oxide particles imaged with the aSTEM detector in darkfield mode at 20 kV.
  • Superconductor alloy sample imaged at 1 kV with the aBSD.
  • Zinc oxide dendrites
  • Non-conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles
    Non-conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Non-conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles used as pigments and opacifying agents can be imaged easily at 40 Pa in VP mode with the C2D detector, image width 10 µm.

    Non-conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles used as pigments and opacifying agents can be imaged easily at 40 Pa in VP mode with the C2D detector, image width 10 µm.

  • 25 – 50 nm iron oxide particles imaged with the aSTEM detector in darkfield mode at 20 kV.
    25 – 50 nm iron oxide particles imaged with the aSTEM detector in darkfield mode at 20 kV.

    25 – 50 nm iron oxide particles imaged with the aSTEM detector in darkfield mode at 20 kV.

    25 – 50 nm iron oxide particles imaged with the aSTEM detector in darkfield mode at 20 kV.

  • Superconductor alloy sample imaged at 1 kV with the aBSD.
    Superconductor alloy sample imaged at 1 kV with the aBSD.

    Superconductor alloy sample imaged at 1 kV with the aBSD. (Scalebar 20 µm)

    Superconductor alloy sample imaged at 1 kV with the aBSD. (Scalebar 20 µm)

  • Zinc oxide dendrites
    Zinc oxide dendrites

    Zinc oxide dendrites: detect morphological changes in the electrodes of energy storage systems. Sigma, ETSE, 5kV.
     

    Zinc oxide dendrites: detect morphological changes in the electrodes of energy storage systems. Sigma, ETSE, 5kV.
     

Industrial Applications

See how metals, alloys and powders are investigated.

Accessories

In Situ Lab for ZEISS FE-SEMs - Link Materials Performance to Microstructure

In Situ Lab for ZEISS FE-SEMs

Link Materials Performance to Microstructure

Extend your ZEISS FE-SEM with an in situ solution for heating and tensile experiments. Benefit from an integrated solution. Investigate materials like metals, alloys, polymers, plastics, composites, and ceramics. Combine a mechanical tensile or compression stage, a heating unit and dedicated high-temperature detectors with analytics. Control all system components from a single PC with a unified software environment that enables unattended automated materials testing.

SmartEDX - Discover Embedded Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

SmartEDX

Discover Embedded Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

If SEM imaging alone isn’t enough to gain a complete understanding of your samples turn to embedded EDS for microanalysis. Acquire spatially resolved elemental information with a solution optimized for low voltage applications. Optimize routine microanalysis and detection of low energy X-rays from light elements thanks to superior transmissivity of the silicon nitride window. Teams in multi-user environments will benefit from the workflow-guided GUI. The support of the ZEISS engineer offers you a one-stop-shop for installation, preventive maintenance and warranty.
Fully Integrated RISE - Benefit from Raman Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy

Fully Integrated RISE

Benefit from Raman Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy

Complement the characterization of your material and add Raman Spectroscopic Imaging (RISE). Get a chemical fingerprint from your sample and extend your Sigma 300 with confocal Raman imaging capability. Recognize molecular and crystallographic information. Perform 3D analysis and correlate SEM imaging, with Raman mapping and EDS data if appropriate. Fully integrated RISE lets you take advantage of both best-in-class SEM and Raman systems.

Downloads

    • 3D Imaging Systems

      Your Guide to the Widest Selection of Optical Sectioning, Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microscopy Techniques.

      Pages: 68
      File size: 5 MB
    • ZEISS Sense BSD

      Backscatter Electron Detector for Fast and Gentle Ultrastructural Imaging

      Pages: 6
      File size: 6 MB
    • ZEISS Sigma 300 with RISE

      Extend your ZEISS Sigma 300 with Fully Integrated Raman Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopy (RISE)

      Pages: 2
      File size: 2 MB
    • ZEISS Sigma Family

      Your Field Emission SEMs for High Quality Imaging and Advanced Analytical Microscopy

      Pages: 37
      File size: 10 MB
    • ZEISS SmartEDX

      The ZEISS Embedded EDS Solution for Your Routine SEM Microanalysis Applications

      Pages: 10
      File size: 2 MB
    • In Situ Lab for ZEISS FE-SEM

      Pages: 5
      File size: 4 MB
    • ZEISS Sigma Family - Flyer

      Your FE-SEMs for High Quality Imaging & Advanced Analytical Microscopy

      Pages: 2
      File size: 2 MB
    • Large Volume Imaging of Eye Muscle by SIGMA VP and 3View

      Serial Block Face Imaging

      Pages: 8
      File size: 1 MB
    • ZEISS Sigma 300 with WITec Confocal Raman Imaging

      Characterizing Structural and Electronic Properties of 2D Materials Using RISE Correlative Microscopy

      Pages: 10
      File size: 6 MB
    • Correlative Automated Quantitative Mineralogy (AQM) and LA-ICP-MS Workflows

      for Geochronology, Vector/Indicator Minerals and Conflict Minerals

      Pages: 6
      File size: 1 MB
    • Voltage Contrast in Microelectronic Engineering

      Pages: 6
      File size: 1 MB
    • Case Study

      Corrosion analysis of modern and historic railway trackwith optical, electron and correlative Raman microscopy

      Pages: 10
      File size: 7 MB
    • Cathodoluminescence of Geological Samples: Fluorite Veins

      ZEISS Scanning Electron Microscopes with Atlas

      Pages: 5
      File size: 5 MB
    • Investigating Sweet Spot Imaging of Perovskite Catalysts Bearing Exsolved Active Nanoparticles

      Pages: 6
      File size: 5 MB
    • ZEISS Microscopy Solutions for Geoscience

      Understanding the fundamental processes that shape the universe expressed at the smallest of scales

      Pages: 9
      File size: 15 MB
    • ZEISS Microscopy Solutions for Oil & Gas

      Understanding reservoir behavior with pore scale analysis

      Pages: 8
      File size: 7 MB
    • ZEISS Sigma 300

      Quantitative EBSD Studies of Soft Magnetic Composites

      Pages: 8
      File size: 10 MB

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